How efficient are mainstream photovoltaic panels "in the real world"?

The monocrystalline panels offered by Building Services Plovdiv achieve an efficiency between 20 and 22% under standard testing conditions, with the newer N-Type TOPCon panels achieving between 22 and 23%.
The standardised test conditions used by manufacturers specify 25°C air temperature, 1000 watts per square meter (1 kWh/m²) of solar irradiance, and an air mass of 1.5.
In practice, many factors can negatively influence the performance of a solar panel. Among those are dust that inevitably accumulates on the panels, partially shaded panels due to shadows cast by clouds, trees or other objects, and high ambient temperatures. Actual power output will vary from zero to as high as the design specification when the conditions are ideal.
The trend is for panels to become both more efficient and cheaper. Solar panel technology is ever-evolving, and the panels available today far surpass those available just ten years ago.

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